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Chapter 5:

Entropy &
Caton's Exosomatic Axis
"[Classical thermodynamics]is the only physical theory of universal content which I am convinced, that within the framework of applicability of its basic concepts will never be overthrown."
Albert Einstein 1
(1879-1955)
"All the evidence suggests that we have consistently exaggerated the contributions of technological genius and underestimated the contributions of natural resources."
Stewart L. Udall 2


The very manner in which we define intelligence is integrally linked to the use of tools -- the ability to take objects from our surrounding and use them not only to survive and expand the range of our influence, but to reorder Nature and create contortionist artificialities that no other known species on this earth is capable.
As it pertains to the field of medicine, this has turned out to be more than a mixed blessing.

Anthropologists use endosomatic to describe our organs, our extremities -- the limited physical components of what we call our bodies. They use exosomatic to describe these tools, these instruments -- the array of physical helpers that are NOT a part of our body that we use to reorder our environment. The expansive distinct between the purely endosomatic and the purely exosomatic provides, in my opinion, a perfect metaphor for what guides is to, or away from, optimal healing.
That metaphor is the purpose of this chapter.

My first exposure to the concept came a quarter century ago (1980) in my initial reading of Rifkin's Entropy. But I did not realize the importance of how entropy affects our lives until I saw its effects closeup, relative to the corruption of organized medicine.
For those of you who have either forgotten or just circumvented your high school physics course, entropy is a concept of physics which tells us that in any closed system (and excepting the intake of sunlight from 93 million miles away, and the miniscule influence of various celestial bodies, planet Earth is a fairly closed system), the amount of energy available to do work (be it in the form of oil, coal, timber, etc.) is finite, and so without the infusion of additional, usable energy from outside the system, deterioriation results. Within the system, you see orderliness (high energy state) become disorderliness (low energy state); organization become chaos; action become inaction; efficiency become inefficiency; life (again, high energy state) become death (low energy state), etc. Most of what you and I call "progress" (negative entropy) -- or what we might think of as a defiance of entropy -- is nothing more than an acceleration of it through an increased rate of energy resource usage. We create increasing order, wealth, opulence, high society -- the good life -- by creating disorderliness somewhere else. Entropy can be minimized by living in harmony with the environment -- what ecologists call "sustainability," but you never completely escape it.
Entropy is an immutable law of the universe.
This concept is derived from the laws of thermodynamics, which Rifkin summarizes with: "The total energy content of the universe is constant, and the total entropy (unusual energy) is continually increasing." 3.
The relationship that exists between low entropy (greater energy and orderliness, lower rate of consumption in the use of surrounding energy) and higher entropy (less energy, more disorderliness, higher rate of consumption in the use of surrounding energy) has a direct correlation between what I call endosomatic-dominant and exosomatic-dominant systems of work. For example, if I walk down the block to buy some orange juice at the convenience store (endosomatic), I use a tiny fraction of the energy, measurable in ergs, that I would use if I got into my car (exosomatic) and made the same round trip.

"Man has 'wants' which he likes to regard as 'needs.' He has basic physiological needs for food and drink. He has other elementary wants for clothing and heating. Finally he has, as it were, 'high standard' wants, like reading, listening to music, travelling, amusing himself. Human wants have no upper limit, but they have a lower limit -- the minimum food necessary to maintain life."
Carlo M. Cipolla 15

Modern civilization, as we know it, has been made possible by a movement away from endosomatic solutions for life -- to those that are exosomatic. We are tool-users on steroids, and at our present rate of resource consumption to create, use, service, and replace our beloved tools, we are bringing civilization to a roadblock unlike the world has ever seen -- a conclusion that can be readily drawn just on the basis of our dependence on non-renewable oil, the lack of any reasonable technology on the drawing board that will cost effectively replace it --- in TIME, its ubiquitous use in personal transportation, commercial shipping, energy production, manufacturing (steel, plastics, chemical, etc.), agriculture -- well, just about every facet of our lives -- and then there's the irrefutability of Hubbert's Peak, 4 - 8, the greatest implication of which is, we will begin to run out of food relative to our world population "load," concurrent with running out of oil . . .
But never mind all that . . . 'tis a trifling matter.
Let's get back to medicine.

In a society with a cultural infrastructure devoted to a highly specialized, highly entropic, highly exosomatic orientation, the one area that most rebels against "the machine" is people, the person, the human body, us!
A human being is not a car, a house, a television, or a cellphone. All those things are exosomatic. So you can improve upon them by using exosomatic methods. But the human body is not one of our exosomatic tools. It is us. It is a well-crafted creation of Nature, not an artificial construct we created in a laboratory or manufacturing plant. In no other area has modern civilization failed us more than in the area of medicine -- and the power elite has used all its powers of advertising, persuasion, regulation, education, and obfuscation to try and convince us that exosomatic methods employed on Nature's most perfect endosomatic specimen is the only right way.
Upon what scientific, or moral, or ethical, or legal . . . meat doth this, our Medical Establishment, feed that it is so corrupt? The answer is, it feeds on the supremely misguided notion that you can achieve perfection by forcing exosomatic methods in an endosomatic system.
And for all the modern medical apologists who would attempt to argue that signs of increased longevity, or decrease in infant mortality, or falling in infectious disease is a sign of unqualified success, there is an even more powerful argument that modern medicine and its brethren in the industrial community have brought us lives of untold ecological destruction, financial servitude, marginally functioning immune systems, limited vision, and a disconnectedness from our natural roots and the wisdom, as a people, that we could only obtain and sustain through a communion with the earth and her natural bounty.
You will not understand what this means unless you can grasp the nature of the continuum, the Axis -- as I call it -- through which we pass from the endosomatic to the exosomatic, and the mixed blessing that is inherent therein.
In the table below, you will find four categories that mark changes in properties, attitudes, approach as you proceed from Pure Endosomatic to Pure Exosomatic. As you read through the Table, if you have any intuitive sensibilities at all, you will get the "jist" of this reality to the point where you could well add categories of your own. It is only important to get the basic concept, because, together with the material on Occam's Razor, this material forms core building blocks that are needed to understand the material in later chapters.
Conventional medical thinkers will find portions of the Table quite offensive.
Tough.
If you "get" the concepts, it doesn't matter if you agree or disagree with any one or more particular positions or attributes I ascribe to any part of the table. You will only internalize and accept what your consciousness allows you to anyway.
Please study this Table carefully before proceeding to the next chapter.

Reduced Entropy, Consciousness, & Optimal Health
Greg Caton - meditating at OLQA - Dec., 1972 In 1970 the author took a course on Comparative Religion, followed by an extensive study of both Western and Eastern forms of meditation, including transcendental meditation (TM) in 1972, and attendance at Maharishi International University (MIU) in 1979 and 1980. A constant theme that runs throughout the entire interdisciplinary "Core Curriculum" at MIU is the role of the entropy law throughout the universe. As to the practice of meditation, its effect in lowering "physiological entropy" as a purely endosomatic practice is, at least in my mind, a significant part of the reason for its countless, scientifically proven health benefits. 11. But then I may be prejudice -- since my 32 years of practice have created a situation where I can no longer separate my experiential from purely intellectual insights on this matter.
As an aside (and I say this more for their protection than mine -- especially in light of the horrific entity the FDA is continuing to morph into), the views I express throughout this website are not a reflection of the material I acquired while at the seminary, LAVC, CSUN, MIU or any other institution of higher learning with which I have been associated, or any teacher I have had, dead or alive, recently or past; secula seculorum. Amen.

Entropy - Jeremy Rifkin
Definitions
"While all living things are engaged in a continuous struggle to suck available energy from their surroundings, only Homo sapiens is equipped with external aids to help facilitate the process. Other creatures must rely on their own anatomy -- their eyes, ears, nose, teeth, claws, and so on -- to gather up energy. Human beings, however, because of our more highly developed nervous system and brain, have succeeded in augmenting and extending our natural biological apparatus with the creation of all sorts of tools. Scientists and anthropologists refer to these instruments as exosomatic in nature to distinguish them from the endosomatic organs we're born with.
"When we talk about exosomatic instructions, we're really including the entire range of tools that people use to capture, transform, and process available energy (or negative entropy) through our systems. We develop tools and machinery to extract energy from the environment; we build homes to capture heat and maintain our body warmth; we build roads, construct bridges, and engineer new ways of traveling to facilitate the transport of energy from one location to another; we devise languages, customs, economic institutions, and governments to better organize the processing and distribution of energy . . . .
"Energy is the basis of human culture, just as it is the basis of life. Therefore, power in every society ultimately belongs to whoever controls the exosomatic instruments that are used to transform, exchange, and discard energy. Class division, exploitation, privilege, and poverty are all determined by how a society's energy flow line is set up. Those who control the exosomatic instruments control the energy flow line. They determine how the work in society will be divided up and how the economic rewards will be allocated among various groups and constituencies." 9 Jeremy Rifkin


Faith Healing
The castigation of more endosomatic systems of healing stands as a never ending source of orthodox medicine's ignominy. There are, however, exceptions -- and sometimes they do surprise. Frazier's 1973 monogram on faith healing is one such eyebrow raiser. 10 The physician / editor reveals sentiments early on by dedicating the book "to my mother, who prayed for my healing when I was seriously ill as a young child. She was convinced of my healing by divine intervention." (Wasn't he?) Twenty miraculous stories of unexplained healings is preceeded by an introduction by none other than that prolific, grand apologist of the AMA throughout much of the mid 20th century, Dr. Morris Fishbein. He concludes his light treading analysis with by acknowledging that "little is as yet known about the mind, about the effects of the mind on the body, of the effects of the body on the mind, and the factors of significance in cases reported in a previous era of miracles wrought by faith. One fact is almost totally accepted: faith plays an important role in healing when both the physician and the patient have faith. How it works is thus far beyond comprehension."
Beyond comprehension for whom?

Betrayal of Trust by Laurie Garrett
A funny thing happened on the way to the New World Medical Order: the bankrupting of the global health system 12, the emergence of new diseases that we have not become to come to grips with 13, and microbial threats that even top U.S. medical experts admit we are ill-prepared to tackle. 14.
My point is clear: you cannot use propaganda to make health care look better than it is. The system either works, or it is flawed and in need of repair.
Without understanding the importance of our endosomatic roots and the forces that contribute to real health care, you cannot build a system where the pluses outweigh the minuses. You can only create ever more inventive ways of trying to convince people that things are better than they really are.

Caton's Exosomatic Axis
Axial
Progression
Pure
Endosomatic
Endosomatic
dominant /
Exosomatic
subordinate
Exosomatic
dominant /
Endosomatic
subordinate
Pure
Exosomatic
Definitional Overview & Basic Properties
Seed
Concept
Me. My body, mind & spirit -- and my connections to the non-physical world. The greatest, most valuable tools I use are those that are within myself -- and in my relationship with the non-physical, be that identified as God, an unmanifest Supreme Good, etc.
The emphasis is on my person. The "tools" in my environment are utilized in a sustainable way, because consciousness at this level respects the interconnectedness between "me" and the environment that is "not me."
The emphasis is on the objectified outer world -- but there is a still a knowingness of the value of the subjective.
Man is defined by his ability to maximize the utility of his "tools." The Inner Man, the subjective value of humanity, is most suppressed at this stage.
General Orientation
The answer is within us. Whatever problem that can arise from within, can be solved from within. A failure to recognize this eminates from ignorance and a lower state of consciousness.
The answer to our problems starts from within. The solutions outside of us must take the "inner" into consideration.
The solution resides outside of us, but it is helpful not to forget that the inner component is a contributing factor.
Man defines his very intelligence -- indeed, his superiority over apes -- by his ability to use tools. Our solutions clearly reside in objective reality. Science and technology, regardless of discipline, theoretical or applied, dictate that we find solutions by mastering a Nature, which is clearly external to whatever we define as "ourselves."
Consciousness
Highest level of consciousness or "self-actualization." Highest level of spiritual development. Spirit -- rarified.
Lower level of consciousness. More density in physical matter.
Still lower level of consciousness. Man's absorption in the physical world is high, and his consciousness of non-physical worlds is lower still.
The lowest level of consciousness. This level of consciousness has given way to our current mechanistic worldview, as well as our twisted systems of legal, moral, and ethical relativism.
Complexity
Tend to be simple.
More complex.
And still more complex.
Most complex.
Cooperation
versus
Competition
Cooperative. At this end of the axis, the fabric of unity that ties all humanity together is self-evident. Competition is seen as selfish and unnecessary.
Less cooperative with some competition, but cooperation is dominant.
More competitive with some cooperation, but competition is dominant.
Most competition. Even "apparent" cooperation has competitive overtones.
Specialization
Least specialized. Most generalized. Comfortable operating in the abstract. Mimics an Indian proverb about the process of becoming 'enlightened': "A man who controls a fortress automatically controls all the paths leading up to the fortress. Focus on controlling the fortress and not the paths!"
More specialized. Not quite as generalized. Slightly more concrete. Here there is still the understanding that great healing draws from the wellspring of the great generalist. Another Indian proverb: "Water the root to enjoy the fruit."
Still more specilization. Even less generalized. Still more concrete.
Maximum tendency towards specialization. Least generalized. Everything is concrete and there is discomfort operating in the abstract. In a highly mechanistic environment, everything must appear in great detail, every 't' crossed, every 'i' dotted. A generalist is a specialist wannabe.
Thermo-
dynamic
Effect
Low entropy. Takes the least energy away from its environment, and puts the most back in.
More entropic.
And still more entropic.
Most entropy. Exosomatic systems of healing steal the most from their environment and put the least back in.
Ultimate Source of Healing:

Inner to outer; subjective to objective; mind to matter.
Man is, above all things, a spiritual being. The ultimate source of all healing resides INSIDE him. Whatever healing tools are employed, they are extensions of what is within us.
The spirit and mind of man must be taken into primary consideration. Healing cannot take place if the mind of the patient is not properly predisposed -- without observing this principle, a doctor is only addressing gross physical symptoms.
The mind of man is a concern -- after all, do not many illnesses have a psychosomatic component? Nonetheless, the tools of healing largely stand on their own merit, independent of what the patient does or does not think.
Everything that is necessary to heal man's ills resides OUTSIDE him. Science tells us that we can only know reality by adherring to the truth of objectivity -- for subjectivity can only fail us.
Modalities:

Systems of healing, methods, products, and protocols as they reside along the Exosomatic Axis.
Faith and 'psychic' healing practices, power of positive thinking, Reiki, therapeutic massage, chiropractic and osteopathic subluxation manipulations, 'psychic surgery'; exercise, hatha yoga, and related practices.
Nutrition and diet; natural vitamin / mineral supplementation; herbology (phytopharmacology / ethnobotanical medicine), iatrochemistry (involving naturally occurring minerals and compounds), balneology, bio-oxidative therapy, etc.
Artificial diet supplementation (or compound not as readily assimilated as from natural sources); minor surgery, pharmacologicals involving compounds that are close to those of natural sources (i.e. phytopharmacology, etc.)
Those farthest from man's natural origins: this would include most of the drugs now on the market in the West; chemotherapy with chemical compounds not found in nature, radiation treatment, radical surgery, etc. Those in this group tend to be immunosuppressive in some way; not immunosupportive -- a propensity to work one's will ON nature instead of work WITH nature.
Between Unmanifest & Manifest
Relationship
Between
Spiritual
& Material

Describe using set theory.
The spiritual (God) is the master set. All things in the material world are a subset of this reality -- for all things in the material are given birth by the Divine. 'As above -- so below.' All members of the material set are contained in the spiritual set.
The material world is subordinate to the spiritual. But the material is its own reality. I try to work in the 'intersection' set.
All things spiritual are a subset of a much larger Universe where the laws of nature are both material in nature and paramount. There is no intersection set.
The laws of science are the "master set." Things that appear to be spiritual can all be explained in strictly scientific terms. The mechanistic view of the Universe reigns supreme. Not only is there no intersection set; there is no spiritual set.
Role of
Spirituality:


On the part of patient or practitioner, what role belief in the Divine or Higher Power or Spirituality contributes to the healing process.
Central to the healing process. Heavy reliance on the 'innate intelligence of the body' by practitioner, and usually patient. 'Man does not live by bread alone, but by every Word that comes from the mouth of God . . . ' 'If you only but had the Faith of a mustard seed . . . ' 'By Faith you are healed . . .'
Still a primary component of the healing process, followed closely by the right material means outside the body and observance of the scientific method.
May or may not have some influence. But our true faith must exist in science and the discovery of the helpful, mechanistic forces that exist outside the body. For science, by definition, we know -- and our spiritual beliefs are only conjecture.
Exists for those who believe in quack medicine. God is dead. Religion is the opium of the masses. Only gullible people believe in such things. Nutrition is unimportant or over-emphasized by quacks. Science will cure all our ills. A Higher Power exerts influence over my medical outcome? Oh please!
Human In Relationship With the Divine
We're spiritual beings having a human experience. [Deepak Chopra]
We're human beings, where the spiritual should matter more than the material.
We're human beings -- material (the seen) by nature. The spiritual (the unseen) is a secondary part of our nature.
We're material beings. Spirituality, at its best, is mere unprovable conjecture.
Role of God
In Healing Process:

Our 'relationship'' with that role.
"GOD is my partner in the healing process. There is nothing I do that does not come from the spiritual. I carry this view if I am a practitioner ... or I am a patient."
"GOD is important in my life, and my attention on the spiritual component of the healing process works closely with the material."
"GOD or the spiritual element plays a part, but science is the most critical component in the process."
"GOD has nothing to do with healing. Healing is a science, pure and simple. I'll go this far and no farther: If the patient 'thinks' that his or her outlook, or spirituality, or some other non-scientific mumbo-jumbo is helping them, it's fine with me."
Good Vs.
Evil
Pure Goodness.
Goodness has the upper hand over Evil.
Evil has the upper hand over Goodness.
At its extreme, Evil reigns supreme. After all, can we even say that goodness exists? Isn't goodness an artificial, subjective value? [Moral relativism].
Mind Vs.
Matter
Mind (spirit) over Matter. The physical universe follows causatively from the Word (thought).
Mind can influence Matter.
Mind and matter can influence each other. The role of Mind is just one among many.
The laws of science are immutable. Matter over mind.
Light Vs.
Darkness
"I work from the Light. I see Darkness as an absence of Light."
"I draw from the Light. But I am adept at working in the many shades of Grey."
"I work in the Dark, because the Earth resides in Darkness, with occasional help from the Light."
"There is only Darkness. It is the Light that is an illusion."
Form Vs.
Substance
Substance follows Form. Form is acknowledged as the all-powerful caustive factor.
More attention on Form -- and Substance follows.
More attention on Substance -- and Form follows.
Substance is all that matters. Form is an illusion used to control our objectives.
The Medical Intermediary
Physician's
Subjective
View of
His Role
"I am at my best when I am in tune with the Divine Healer within me." "I am but an Instrument, a Facilitator of Spirit." . . . "Not my will, but Thine be done."
"I draw inspiration from intuition and other subjective components of Mind that aren't taught in medical school."
"Adherence to proven medical principles is paramount, though I admit that some 'help from above' doesn't hurt."
"I am God."
Physician's
Attitude To
Compensation
"Helping my patients is paramount. If I devote all my attention to the wellness of those under my care, God will take care of my needs. I am uncompromising in doing what is best for my patient -- for my aid to my fellow man is part and parcel of my relationship with the Divine" . . . "As ye do to the least of my Brethren, so you do unto Me . . ." My best work DOES make me wealthy -- but with a wealth that cannot be measured merely in bank deposits.
"Helping my patients is what is uppermost on my mind. The products, services, and protocols I employ must benefit the patient or I will not use them. I charge my patient a fair rate for what I do. I need to be properly compensated for my talents and abilities, but I put the welfare of my patients over my desire to make money. In fact, I would give up my practice before I would allow a regulatory or other authorative body to force me to use methods that I suspected were not beneficial to my patients."
"Getting paid comes first. I do whatever I can to help my patient, but regardless of the outcome, practicing medicine is a business -- and those who foolishly forget this will not have a successful practice. Nevertheless (and secondarily), I will not use a product or protocol if I have any reason to believe it will harm the patient."
"Medicine is a business. You are in it to make money. The diagnostic techniques we use, drugs we prescribe, services we render, must earn a profit. If I make a referral, I expect a fee. There are recommendations I make that I know will not help some of my patients, but as long as 'it's legal' and I've covered myself to the letter of the Law, I'm fine with it. I use techniques on my patients that I wouldn't think of using on members of my own family. I would never take the risk of saving a patient's life if it meant that I would lose money ... or risk my license."
Medicine & The Role of
Profitability
Marginally profitable compared to exosomatic approaches -- simply because money is not where the focus is . . . "I put the mission before the commission . . . " Again, the wealth that a practitioner obtains through adhering to endosomatic practices cannot be measured in money alone.
Always self-supporting -- because money still makes the world go round. But the best rewards, for both practitioner and patient, are still well outside the domain of money.
Probably quite profitable, because earning a profit is a primary concern. But the welfare of the patient is still important.
Very profitable. After all -- you don't support a medical product unless it has the potential to make money. Good medicine and good business go hand in hand. And good business, by definition, means you're earning good money. The relationship is linear: you make MORE MONEY because good business becomes better business. And better business means better medicine -- a kind of monetary biofeedback.
Law, Politics & Other Artificial Constructs
The Source
Of Authority

Centralized
vs. Localized
The ultimate source of authority is the individual, the endosomatic wellspring. So authority is localized -- what is closest and most empowering to the individual. All endosomatic, low entropy cultures share a decentralized political system.
Movement towards more centralization. As we move along the exosomatic axis, the specialization of tools brings the opportunity to create 'power cells,' and these can only be consolidated through progressive centralization. Localized, dominant; centralized, subordinate.
Some authority is localized, but the emphasis is on centralization. Centralized, dominant; localized, subordinate.
Centralization rules -- in political structure, standards, laws, etc. Localized authority exists but it dwarfs the power and dominance of centralized authoritative entities.
The Role
Of Law
In Healing
Natural Law is the foundation of healing in its purest form. We can only degrade healing when we depart from Natural Law.
Doing what's right takes precedent over the 'letter of the law.'
The 'letter of the law,' unfortunately, is still the law. You have to follow the Law even if you know it isn't right. Life is about compromises.
Medicine is business. Business needs protection. Law provides protection. What is "right" is not the issue, because rightness is subjective.
Patents &
Proprietary
Claims
Endosomatic methods of healing, by their nature, are not patentable. No one, but God, can claim ownership. When healers do their best work they are still just borrowing something they know belongs to no mere man. True healers know that real medical knowledge rests in a realm that is beyond money, patents, proprietary claims, monopolies, and, indeed, all manner of commerce. Such things belong to artificial, economic and political constructs that WE create. They are foreign to Nature and to Natural Law.
Various medical practitioners or groups may have their 'formulary secrets,' or elements of their work not in the 'public domain,' fleeting and temporary though these claims may be. Nonetheless, every conscientious practitioner knows that the source of their best work resides in a field of life and thought that is beyond the gross material plane. It resides in the "collective unconscious" for all to see, if they merely develop their Inner Vision.
Good medicine is rooted in progress and you promote progress by providing incentives to protect proprietary invention. That goes for every area of technology, not just medicine. That the source of such inventiveness may come from areas of life that reside outside commerce and the more practical areas of human endeavor doesn't marginalize the need to enforce effective, proprietary systems that make progress possible.
Again, medicine is business. You cannot have good business without respect for intellectual property rights. Great medical inventions come from people -- not God, angels, fairies, or other unseen forces. Strictly enforced patent law makes medical progress possible. If a medical product or procedure isn't patentable, it is, no doubt, inferior. Medical progress -- the forward march of scientific achievement through time -- moves us forward, not backward. And the incentive to make money by providing proprietary protection cannot be divorced from good medicine.
Imputations
To Time
Natural Law exists outside linear time, as we know it. An old Indian proverb reads: "There is nothing new under the sun" -- capturing the limitations of a linear view of time, discovery, and evolution that a less expansive view can only truncate. A highly evolved healer knows that by tapping into the collective unconscious, the akashic records, call it what you will, he operates outside of time. He draws from the same inspirational sources that healers did 3,000 years ago, assuming they had the same level of awareness. Discovery, advancement, evolution, or well-being cannot be measured in time; they are rooted in pure consciousness which knows no time
Although medical advances have appeared to accrue over time, we still adhere to those practices that work. Our allegiance is to what helps the patient. Just because something is old, doesn't mean it isn't effective; just because it's proprietary doesn't make it better. Just because it make more money, doesn't mean we should employ it. Conversely, just because a medical technique is new, doesn't mean it is superior to a tried and true method that is over 1,000 years old.
Emphasis should be placed on using the newest and best. Medical progress IS linear. We get better at what we do all the time. We are better healers today than our brethren one hundred years ago. They were better than those one hundred years before them, and so on. History clearly reflects that the advancement of medicine has occurred over time. Nonetheless, a real healer is still an empiricist: he doesn't ignore older healing techniques if a newer one appears to benefit the patient.
Since medicine is business and good business demands progress, it only stands to reason that all regulatory and legal forces should be deployed at protecting the latest medical developments. These developments occur over time. Time is the ubiquitous foundation for how we measure our work, evaluate our advances, and determine quantatively our profitability. All good things come from a strict adherence to linear time. The absence of this adherence brings chaos.

The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight Footnotes

  1. G. Tyler Miller, Jr., Energetics, Kinetics and Life, Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, 1971. p. 46.
  2. William R. Catton, Jr., Overshoot: The Ecological Basis of Revolutionary Change, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL, 1980. p. xv. Catton's book is now considered a classic in ecological sociology, and the quote cited is taken from the "Foreword" by Stewart L. Udall.
  3. The classical definitions of the two classical laws of thermodynamics are: (1) "Energy can be changed from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed. The total amount of energy and matter in the Universe remains constant, merely changing from one form to another. The First Law of Thermodynamics (Conservation) states that energy is always conserved, it cannot be created or destroyed. In essence, energy can be converted from one form into another." When my father was in school, this was also referred to as Humboldt's Law (1848); and (2) what is often called "The Entropy Law," namely, "that in all energy exchanges, if no energy enters or leaves the system, the potential energy of the state will always be less than that of the initial state." See: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookEner1.html
  4. Richard Heinberg, The Party's Over: Oil, War and the Fate of Industrial Societies, New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, BC, Canada; 2003. I could list 50 more references I have on this subject -- all of them good -- but since this is tangential and not terribly relevant to our current focus, I'll just list this one reference, plus the next four -- since they approach the issue from slightly different angles. Scientific Research on the Transcendental
 Meditation Program
  5. Kenneth S. Deffeyes, Hubbert's Peak: The Impending World Oil Shortage, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 2001.
  6. C.J. Campbell, The Coming Oil Crisis, Multi-Science Publishing Company & Petroconsultants, S.A., Brentwood, Essex, England. 1997.
  7. Justin Lahart, "Oil-Price Forecasts Seem to Miss Upward Trend," WSJ, p. C-3, May 19, 2004. In case you think the oil shortage issue is a far-fetched doom and gloom issue, this Wall Street Journal article is an intellectual dose of ephedra. Deffeyes, a former Princeton geology professor, who has spent more than 30 years studying Hubbert's Peak, believes that world oil production "is set to peak on Thanksgiving Day, 2005, give or take a few weeks." His colleague, Tom Petri, head of Petrie Parkman, a Denver investment bank specializing in energy, says, "I spent the first 12 years of my career thinking Hubbert was wrong . . . and I spent the next 20 realizing how right he was." This doesn't spell "doom" in 2005. But it does signal that the era of cheap oil is over. We're now down to "resource wars." Want to know why we really went to Afghanistan and Iraq? Read Michael T. Klare's \ Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict, Henry Holt & Company, 2001.
  8. Thom Hartmann, The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight, Harmony Books, New York, 1998.
  9. Jeremy Rifkin (with Ted Howard), Entropy, Bantam Books, New York, 1980. p. 57 - 59.
  10. Claude A. Frazier, M.D., Faith Healing: Finger of God? or Scientific Curiosity?, Thomas Nelson, Inc., New York, 1973.
  11. David W. Orme-Johnson, Ph.D. and John T. Farrow, Ph.D. (editors), Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program, Maharishi European Research University Press, 1977. This book was already in circulation by the time I became an MIU student -- although the scientific foundation was there from my initial relationship with the TM organization. The month I started (November, 1972), a now famous article was published in Scientific American highlighting Robert Keith Wallace's findings on transcendental consciousness as a distinct fourth state. This proposition was the substance of his UCLA post graduate thesis in physiology -- a bound copy of which can found somewhere around here in my library. Part I in this compilation deals with physiology; Part II, psychology; Part III, sociology . . . there are 104 separate studies. Since 1977 many more studies have been added to this initial work, but then we get well beyond my reasoning for introducing it into this chapter. The correlation the regular practice of meditation, which induces, using the expressions I employ in the "Axis," a low-entropy, highly endosomatic state of functioning, and improvement in a wide variety of health related functions, is irreputable to anyone who will take the time to examine the scientific record in all its glorious tonnage.
  12. Laurie Garrett, Betrayal of Trust: The Collapse of Global Public Health, Hyperion, New York, 2000. An important work, as it dovetails my own conclusions that not only does government not work in the interest of public health, it actually works against it. The corpus of this tomb is almost 600 pages and it reaches, using a little more circuitous route, the same conclusions of impending crisis in the system that I do.
  13. Laurie Garrett, The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Disease in a World Out of Balance, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1994. Published six years earlier, this work, if you have the time to read it, provides an excellent lead in to Betrayal.
  14. Institute of Medicine, Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, 1992.
  15. Carlo M. Cipolla, The Economic History of World Population, Penguin Books, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland; sixth edition, 1974. p. 35.
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